Transformers are electrical devices that serve toincrease or decrease the voltage in an alternating current circuit while maintaining the frequency. The voltage is altered by means of mutual electromagnetic induction.
The hydroelectric power industry has managed to develop thanks to transformers, which have made it possible to transmit electricity to places far from where it is produced.
A transformer consists of a nucleus and coil. The nucleus, in which the coil is mounted, serves to conduct the magnetic flow, because it is a powerful conductor. The coil consists of bobbins made from copper filaments.
Transformers may be classified into two major groups: power transformers and measuring transformers. The former serve to vary the voltage of an alternating current circuit, which they may raise or reduce. The measurement transformers serve to vary high voltages and to measure them without risk.
The principles of transformer operation are based on the theory of electromagnetism, summarised in the Maxwell equations.
Transformers may be found in many places, such as in energy efficient lighting, battery chargers and cars.