The Museum is dedicated to the study of palaeontology, mainly of invertebrate fossils. The collection has a total of nearly 70,000 fossil entries dating from all geological periods. The documentation to carry out the work of classification and study has resulted in a specialised library containing 13,000 titles. It also has a laboratory suitable for preparing fossils which are sent to its facilities. In addition, there is the historic archive, containing the collections of Almera, Vidal, Font, Faura, Bataller, Via, Candel, Solé Sabarís, etc.
Renowned researchers from all over the world visit the museum to study material in their speciality. Since 1988 the Museum has published the annual journal Batalleria, which divulges part of the research carried out there and activities occurring at the Museum. The journal is distributed to major palaeontological research centres around the world. With this same purpose, it also publishes the journal Scripta Musei Geologici Seminarii Barcinonensis. The collection of holotypes is worthy of a special section.