The camera obscura: seeing the world through a pinhole
In the 17th and 18th centuries tools were invented that allowed people to capture images using a camera obscura. At the same time, optical boxers, also known as "Mondo Nuovo", allowed spectators to glimpse faraway cities and distant lands without moving, through so-called "optical views", seen from inside the box through a hole with a lens.
Photography: chemicals replace paint
From 1839, thanks to chemicals, images could be captured permanently using the camera obscura. This was photography, capable of accurately reproducing ephemeral events, capturing appearances and giving the human eye a new and more realistic perception of reality.